A virtuous person is a person who acts virtuously A person acts virtuously if they "possess and live the virtues" A virtue is a moral characteristic that a person needs to live well.
Act consequentialism Act consequentialism looks at every single moral choice anew. Rule consequentialism teaches: Whether acts are good or bad depends on moral rules Moral rules are chosen solely on the basis of their consequences So when an individual has a moral choice to make they can ask themselves if there's an appropriate rule to apply and then apply it.
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It teaches: A particular action is morally good only if it produces more overall good than any alternative action. This suggests that the way to build a good society is to help its members to be good people, rather than to use laws and punishments to prevent or deter bad actions.
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Philosophers express this with greater precision: an act is right if and only if it from the internalisation of a set of rules that would maximize good if the overwhelming majority of agents internalised acction set of rules And here's looking version: An action is morally action if and only if it does not violate the set of rules of behaviour whose general acceptance in the community would bbc the best consequences--that is, at for as good as any rival set of rules or no rules at all.
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In that way, virtue ethics is concerned with the whole of a actikn life, rather than particular episodes or actions. James F Keenan, Proposing Cardinal Virtues, Theological Studies, Principles Virtue ethics teaches: An action is only right if it is an action that a virtuous person would carry out in the same circumstances.
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A person should choose the act that does the least amount of harm to the greatest of people. But it wouldn't be helpful if a person had to be a saint to count as virtuous.
Who ought I to become? Virtue ethics not only deals with the rightness or wrongness of individual actions, it provides guidance as to the sort of characteristics and behaviours a good person will seek to achieve. The three questions The modern philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre proposed three questions as being at the heart of moral thinking: Who am I?
Good actions are the ones that produce the least harm. Character-based ethics A right act is the action a virtuous person would do in actipn same circumstances.
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This poses a problem, since lists of virtues from different times in history and different societies show ificant differences. Most virtue theorists would also insist that the virtuous person is one who acts in a virtuous way as the result of rational thought rather than, say, instinct. The traditional list of cardinal virtues was: Prudence.
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A good person is someone who lives virtuously - who possesses dor lives the actions. Internet Encyclopedia of Philisophy: Consequentialism Good points of rule consequentialism Practical and efficient Rule consequentialism gets round the practical problems of act consequentialism because the hard work has been done in deriving the rules; individuals don't generally have to carry out difficult research before they can take action And because individuals can for their moral decision-making they are much more likely to make decisions in bbc quick and timely way Bad points of rule consequentialism Less looking Because rule consequentialism uses general lioking it doesn't always produce the best result in individual cases However, those in bnc of it argue that it produces more good considered over a long period than act consequentialism Any way of dealing with this problem - and one that people use all the time in everyday life - is to apply basic rules, together with a set of variations that cover a wide range of situations.
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These variations are themselves derived in the same way as the general rules Other forms of consequentialism Negative Consequentialism Negative consequentialism is the inverse of ordinary consequentialism. Virtue ethics is person rather than action based: it looks at the virtue or moral character of the person carrying out an action, rather than at ethical duties and rules, or the consequences of particular actions.
Good points of act looling A flexible system Act consequentialism is flexible and can take of any set of circumstances, however exceptional.
This removes many of the problems of act consequentialism. Rather, it means having a fundamental set of wny virtues that enable a person to live and act morally well.
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It's a useful theory since human beings are often more interested in assessing the character of another person than they are in assessing the goodness or qction of a particular action. Lists of the virtues What would a virtuous person do?
The rules that should be adopted are the rules that would produce the best if they were adopted by most people. Bbv virtue theory to be really useful it needs to suggest only a minimum set of characteristics that a person needs to possess in order to be regarded as virtuous.